Study of variability alpha-amylase isozymes in wheat varieties of Ukrainian breeding

Keywords: Triticum aestivum L., α-amylase, isoenzymes, electrophoresis, falling number, pre-harvest germination of grain


Aim. To investigate the variability of alpha-amylase isoenzymes in soft wheat varieties of Ukrainian selection, created by breeding institutions located in different climatic zones (Forest Steppe and Steppe). Methods. Isoenzymes of alpha-amylase were detected by electrophoretic protein separation in a polyacrylamide gel. The fall number on the «Falling Number 1700» was determined. Results. For a representative assessment of the distribution of alpha-amylase isoenzymes, we studied the zoned varieties of common wheat from two breeding centers located in different climatic zones: the Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Forest-steppe) and the Breeding and Genetics Institute of the National Academy of Sciences, Odessa (Steppe). The variability of wheat grain alpha-amylase was revealed. A search for associations between alpha-amylase variants and resistance to pre-harvest grain germination was conducted. Conclusions. The prevalence of alpha-amylase isoenzyme variants in Ukrainian common wheat varieties was estimated. Among Odessa varieties, the AbCd alpha-amylase variant predominates with a frequency of 50.0 %. AbCd and AbCD phenotypes with a frequency of 38.8 % predominate in the selection varieties of the IFRG of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. It was shown that the genotypes containing the AbCD and ABсD isoenzyme variant are more resistant to pre-harvest germination, and the ABCd and AbcD variants are less resistant to pre-harvest grain germination.


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