Influence of alleles of the Ppd-D1 gene and different duration of requirement in yarovization on economic valuable signs of winter bread wheat

Keywords: wheat, vernalization, Ppd-1 genes, earing, plant height, weight of 1000 grains, yield


Aim. To determine the influence of alternative alleles of the Ppd-D1 gene and phenotypic differences in the duration of the need for vernalization and their interaction on earing time and grain yield of recombinant lines of bread winter wheat. Methods. Growing plants in the field and on the vegetation site, PCR with specific primers for Ppd-D1 and Ppd-B1c genes, phenological observations, artificial vernalization, statistical analysis. Results. 136 recombinant F7 lines from crossing [F1 (Chaika//Cappelle Desperez/2В Chinese Spring) / Kharkivska 81] F2 / Obryi identified by alleles of the Ppd-D1 gene, characterized by the duration of the need for vernalization, duration of the period to earing, plant height, weight 1000 grains and grain harvest. Conclusions. Genotypes with the presence of the Ppd-D1a allele eared 2.9 days earlier than those with the Ppd-B1b allele, and the lines with a 30-day need – one day earlier than those with a 40-day need for vernalization. Different combinations of alternative alleles of the Ppd-D1 gene and characteristics of the lines regarding the need for vernalization significantly influenced the differences in the duration of the period before heading and the weight of 1000 grains. Among the lines that significantly exceeded the control varieties Antonivka and Kuyalnik in terms of yield, those with a different combination of two traits were found, but the share of lines with a combination of the Ppd-D1a gene and 30 daily need for vernalization was greater and they formed the largest yield.


Bulavka N. Vernalization requirement and photoperiod sensitivity of winter bread wheat varieties bred MIW. Agrobiology. 2010. No.60. P. 12–16. [in Ukrainian]

Pirych A. V., Bulavka N. V., Yurchenko T. V. Photoperiodic sensitivity and vernalization requirement of winter wheat varieties (Trticum aestivum L.) of myronivka breeding. Grain Crops. 2018. No. 2 (2). P. 261–266. doi: 10.31867/2523-4544/0034. [in Ukrainian]

Chebotar G., Bakuma A., Filimonov V., Chebotar S. Haplotypes of Ppd-D1 gene and alleles of Ppd-A1 and Ppd-B1 in Ukrainian bread wheat varieties. Visnyk of the Lviv University. Series Biology. 2019. No. 80. P. 82–89. doi: 10.30970/vlubs.2019.80.10.

Fait V. I., Balashova. I. A. Distribution of photoperiod-insensitive alleles Ppd-D1a, Ppd-B1a, and Ppd-B1c in winter common wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of various origin. Cytology and Genetics. 2022. Vol. 56(2). P. 109–117. doi: 10.3103/S0095452722020049.

Fayt V. I. Identification of winter bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) gene pool for the genes of vernalization requirement duration (Vrd). Genetičnì resursi roslin. 2012. No.10/11. Р. 212–219. [In Ukrainian]

Pirych A. V., Bulavka N. V., Kovalyshyna H. M. Genes controlling the duration of the vernalization period in the winter wheat variety MIP Valensiia. Myronivka Bulletin. 2018. No. 6. P. 77–89. [in Ukrainian]

Dowla M. A. N. N. U., Edwards I., O’Hara G., Islam S., Ma W. Developing wheat for improved yield and adaptation under a changing climate: optimization of a few key genes. Engineering. 2018. Vol. 4. P. 514–522. doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2018.06.005 2095-8099.

Fayt V. I., Pogrebnyuk E. A., Balashova I. A., Stelmakh A. F. Identification and effects of alleles of Ppd-B1 gene on agronomically valuable traits in recombinant-inbred lines of wheat. Fiziol. rast. genet. 2017. Vol. 49 (1). P. 36–46. doi: 10.15407/frg2017.01.036. [in Russian]

Bakuma А. О., Popovych Yu. A., Motsnyy I. I., Chebotar G. O., Chebotar S. V. Effects of the Ppd-D1a allele on growth rates and agronomical traits in wheat detected by the application of analogous lines. Cytol Genet. 2018. Vol. 52 (5). P. 343–352. doi: 10.3103/S009545271805002X.

Fayt V. I. Effects of vernalization duration control genes (Vrd) on agronomical traits in winter bread wheat. Tsitol Genet. 2007. Vol. 41 (5). P. 18–26. [in Russian]

Alipour H., Abdi H. Interactive effects of vernalization and photoperiod loci on phenological traits and grain yield and differentiation of Iranian wheat landraces and cultivars. J. Plant Growth Regul. 2021. Vol. 40. P. 2105–2114. doi: 10.1007/s00344-020-10260-8.

Feit V. I., Martynyuk V. R. Photoperiod sensitivity and vernalization requirement of winter bread wheat varieties bred in PBGI. Zbirnyk nauk. prac SGI-NCNS. 2002. No. 2 (42). P. 30–36. [in Ukrainian]

Beales J., Turner A., Griffiths S., Snape J. W., Laurie D.A. A pseudo-response regulator is misexpressed in the photoperiod insensitive Ppd-D1a mutant of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet. 2007. Vol. 115. P. 721–733. doi: 10.1007/s00122-007-0603-4.

Mokanu N. V., Fayt V. I. Differences in the effects of alleles of the genes Vrd1 and Ppd-D1 with respect to winter hardiness, frost tolerance and yield in winter wheat. Cytology and Genetics. 2008. Vol. 42 (6). P. 384–390. doi: 10.3103/S0095452708060054.

Tsenov N., Gubatov T., Yanchev I. Effect of date of heading on variation of basic components of productivity of winter wheat. Journal of Central European Agriculture. 2020. Vol. 21 (4). P. 751–762. doi: 10.5513/JCEA01/21.4.2819.