Phylogenetic processes in dog domestication and breeding

Keywords: domestication, species, breed, selection, wolf, dog


Aim. The significance of the problem of origin and selection of animals for practice is that by studying the main stages of formation of modern domestic animals in the past, scientists and breeders develop even more effective methods of improving existing breeds by targeted changes in their hereditary properties in purebred breeding, using hybridization and modern biotechnological technologies. Methods. Using archaeological, morphological, biochemical and genetic research methods, scientists managed to establish the karyotype and genome of the wild European wolf and domestic dog. Results. Domestication is the process of turning wild animals into domesticated ones. Over many generations, people have gradually accumulated experience in keeping animals, learned the laws of animal heredity, which helped to accelerate the domestication process and the formation of the original breed populations. The dog is the first domesticated animal, and the history of its domestication dates back to the Mesolithic period (12-15 thousand years BC). The wild European wolf is considered to be the wild ancestor of the dog, since wolves and dogs have 78 chromosomes in their karyotype, and when they mate, they produce fertile offspring. In the process of dog domestication, both morphological and physiological changes occurred compared to the wild European wolf. Since the domestication of dogs involved adaptation to new conditions in captivity, important genetic mechanisms such as mutations, recombination, a hidden reserve of heredity, and the direct effect of selection and selection were important. Conclusions. The representatives of two families of carnivores were domesticated – Canidae and Felidae. Dogs, as already mentioned, were the first domesticated animals tamed and domesticated by humans. The taming and domestication of the wild ancestor of dogs, the wolf, took place in the Mesolithic period, as is known from bone remains discovered by scientists. In different centres of domestication, different forms of wolves have been found that could be domesticated and gave rise to many varieties of dogs since ancient times. Further selection by humans has led to an even greater diversity of domestic dog breeds that serve a variety of purposes (guarding, hunting, sledding, service, and decorative breeds).


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